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Thursday, June 23, 2011

Chevrolet Camaro SS, 2010

 Chevrolet Camaro SS, 2010

The Design features
With a design that is very close to the original concept, the 2010 Chevrolet Camaro acknowledges its heritage from the first-generation Camaro, produced from 1967 through 1969. The two-door sports coupe features classic proportions over a 112.3-inch (2,852 mm) wheelbase. The overall length of the Chevrolet Camaro is 190.4 inches (4,836 mm); width and height are 75.5 inches (1,918 mm) and 54.2 inches (1,376 mm), respectively.
The long hood and short deck are pushed to the far corners of the muscular fender forms and a fast, 67-degree rake windshield contributes to aerodynamic performance that includes a 0.37 coefficient of drag (Cd) on V-6 models and a slightly sleeker 0.35 Cd on the V-8-powered SS model.

The Interior details
Inside the four-passenger cabin, a well-executed balance of heritage, modern design and attention to detail conveys simplicity and refinement with contemporary details in the cluster, switches, dials and lighting.

The Safety
The Chevrolet Camaro offers a comprehensive system of safety features - starting with a robust body structure and integral safety cage around the passenger compartment. High-strength steel and ultra high-strength steels are used in key areas throughout the structure.

The Powertrains
When it comes to performance, the 2010 Chevrolet Camaro delivers in unexpected ways. An advanced 3.6L direct-injected V-6 with variable valve timing is standard on LS and LT models. It offers power and efficiency, with 304 horsepower (227 kW) and EPA-rated 29 mpg in highway driving.
The performance-oriented Chevrolet Camaro SS offers a pair of 6.2L V-8s, including one with Active Fuel Management that helps improve fuel economy by shutting down four cylinders during certain light-load driving conditions. That model delivers 25 mpg in EPA-rated highway fuel economy.

3.6L direct injection V-6
Chevrolet Camaro's 3.6L direct injection (DI) V-6 delivers more power through increased efficiency, while maintaining fuel economy and lowering emissions - including a 25-percent drop in cold-start hydrocarbon emissions. Direct injection optimizes fuel delivery to the combustion chamber by introducing fuel closer to the combustion chamber. The fuel injectors are located beneath the intake ports and fuel is injected directly into the cylinder. The result is better efficiency in the combustion process leading to increased fuel efficiency at part and full throttle.

The 3.6L DI engine produces 304 horsepower (227 kW) at 5,900 rpm and 273 lb.-ft. of torque (370 Nm) at 5,200 rpm. Its 60-degree cylinder block and cylinder heads are cast aluminum to help reduce mass. A forged steel crankshaft provides optimal strength in the bottom end. The cylinder heads include four valves per cylinder, with a dual overhead camshaft design incorporating infinitely variable cam phasing.
A full dual exhaust system, with dual catalytic converters, helps reduce back pressure for optimum power. It also helps the engine reach operating temperature quicker to help burn off cold-start emissions. And despite a compression ratio of 11.3:1, the 3.6L DI engine is designed to run on regular gas.

The Brakes
Front brakes for LS and LT models include single-piston calipers with 321 mm x 30 mm rotors. For long life, performance and consistent feel, organic, non-asbestos compounds are used with FE2 brakes. At the rear are vented rear discs measuring 315 mm x 30 mm, with a single-piston aluminum caliper.
The SS front brake package includes Brembo 355 mm x 32 mm vented rotors with four-piston aluminum calipers. Semi-metallic brake linings are used at all four corners on FE3 models for superior fade resistance and pedal feel. The rear brakes are vented Brembos measuring 365 mm x 28 mm, with aluminum four-piston calipers.

Bentley Continental Supersports, 2010

 Bentley Continental Supersports, 2010

The Bentley Continental Supersports is the fastest and most powerful Bentley ever. It is the extreme Bentley, a muscular two-seater that delivers supercar performance and a highly focused driving experience. The Bentley Continental Supersports is also the first Bentley capable of running on both petrol (gasoline) and biofuel, pioneering the use of FlexFuel technology in the luxury sector. This represents stage one of the company's commitment to make its complete model range compatible with renewable fuels by 2012.

The Bentley Continental Supersports began as an 'under the radar' project exploring the possibilities of weight reduction on the Bentley Continental GT but with more power and torque. A largely experimental process crystallised over a period of 24 months into an official new car programme, driven by the passion and enthusiasm of a small group of Bentley engineers and designers. The results are dramatic. With 630PS (621 bhp) and new 'Quickshift' transmission that halves shift times, the Bentley Continental Supersports sets new performance benchmarks for Bentley. It accelerates from 0-60 mph in 3.7 seconds (0-100 km/h in 3.9 seconds) with a top speed of 204 mph (329 km/h).

The supercar performance is complemented by an array of chassis enhancements including retuned steering and suspension, utilising lighter weight components, retuned dampers and anti-roll bars. Agility is further sharpened by the 40:60 rear-biased torque split for the all-wheel drive system, a wider rear track, bespoke lightweight 20-inch alloy wheels and a unique electronic stability programme. Carbon ceramic brakes are standard fitment, benefiting steering response, grip and ride comfort, while saving weight. Overall, the engineering team have achieved a weight reduction of 110 kg (243 lb) compared with the Bentley Continental GT Speed.

The evolution of the Bentley Continental Supersports' design is very much a case of 'form following function' with new purposeful sculptural forms signalling the engineering changes beneath the skin. For example, the increased power and torque of the W12 engine necessitated additional airflow to the twin turbocharger intercoolers and cooling system. Bentley's designers responded with a purposeful and dramatic style that features large vertical intake apertures and twin bonnet vents. Similarly, new flared rear wings that accommodate the 50 mm (2 inches) wider rear track are designed to emphasise the powerful stance of this ultra-high performance coupe. The resultant Supersports style combines the looks of the iconic Continental GT with a new and distinctive appearance that reflects its more extreme character.

The Bentley Continental Supersports is further distinguished from its Continental coupe stable mates by a unique dark-smoked steel finish to all exterior 'brightware', including front grilles, lamp bezels, window surrounds and wheels. A complex 'Physical Vapour Deposition' process is applied to all stainless steel components to give a lustrous and highly durable finish. A car industry first, this process is normally used as a coating on industrial tools, watches and even hip replacement joints.

Fully embracing the extreme spirit of the Supersports, Bentley's interior designers have created a unique ambience. The cockpit represents a dramatic reinterpretation of Bentley interior design in which carbon fibre and Alcantara not only convey a sporting and contemporary style but also reduce weight. The Bentley Continental Supersports is a strict two-seater featuring all-new lightweight sports seats with carbon fibre clamshell rear panels. In the rear compartment, the seats are replaced by a stowage deck with a carbon fibre luggage retaining beam. The new interior also provides a showcase for the skills of Bentley's craftsmen and women at the company's factory in Crewe, England. Signature premium grade leather and brightware are complemented by carbon fibre panels, replacing traditional wood veneers.

The Bentley Continental Supersports is capable of running on either petrol and E85 biofuel or any combination of the two. E85 biofuel can offer a reduction of up to 70 per cent in CO2 emissions on a 'well-to-wheel' basis. Well-to-wheel is a measurement of a fuel's net CO2 contribution to the atmosphere, not just tailpipe emissions. It is a way of quantifying how much CO2 a fuel emits from its growth or extraction (well) to its combustion or deployment (wheel). It includes refinement, distillation and transport of the fuel. The fuel supply system detects the blending ratio of the fuel in the tank and ensures that power and torque remain constant regardless of the ratio of petrol to biofuel. The result is seamless power delivery in the Bentley tradition.

The 'Supersports' name is inspired by the original two-seater 3-litre Supersports model introduced in 1925, itself an evolution of the 3-litre Speed. The lightweight, 85 bhp Supersports was the first production Bentley to reach 100 mph and was also renowned for the application of Le Mans-winning race technology.

Bentley Continental Flying Star, 2010

Bentley Continental Flying Star, 2010

It takes an avid and passionate collector, with a taste for special coach building, to be at the basis of a project like the Bentley Continental Flying Star by Touring. Exactly such a person contacted Touring Superleggera in early 2008.

An interesting initial creative process emerged involving parameters for design, proportions, vehicle concepts and - last but not least- feasibility and technical factors. Many steps from design to execution were shared with the customer, who contributed with his own ideas and taste to personalise the project and create a unique automobile. A basic idea was formed by the desire to diversify Bentley's very successful Continental model range, and to explore new concepts.

The transformation of a 2-door coupé, by expanding the roof line and enlarging the interior dimensions, has led to a design concept baptised as shooting brake: a sports car featuring enough space to join a hunting party or a golf tournament with elegance and efficiency. Touring Superleggera explored the same field back in 1966, resulting in the amazing Lamborghini Flying Star II prototype. It was a dramatic interpretation of a sports car based on a new 2-volume design, safeguarding the dynamic performance. The Flying Star reference is a Touring parameter of sportive elegance, applied to many famous cars since the companies' start in 1926.

Flying Star in 2010 - the Bentley challenge
The Bentley Continental GT range set innovative and high standards for a new generation of very sophisticated Grand Tourers. As such, this model triggered the imagination of automotive designers and coach builders elsewhere. The GTC convertible, featuring a very rigid platform, proved to be a fully congruent basis to Touring Superleggera's plans for the new Bentley Continental Flying Star.

The new project required the modification of a number of external dimensions starting from the car's A-pillar backwards: extended roof line, a wider section including the doors, new aluminium door skins and a new all-aluminium, electrically operated tailgate. It also includes a completely new rear compartment with two foldable rear seats and a variable loading space.

This long list of modifications and transformations had to be paired with, and to remain fully compatible to the basic car's technical layout and components. Given the sophistication of the basic car, a new challenge was laid out for Touring's craftsmen and engineers. The final result proves that special coach building can live on well into the 21st. century working with respect to the original manufacturers.

Touring Superleggera is particularly proud of the fact that the complete productive cycle of the special coach building process was realized in their workshop near Milano. Modern body engineering went hand in hand with traditional handicraft skills, maintaining the highest quality directives for the final product.

Project Engineering
The body engineering processes at Carrozzeria Touring are aimed at safeguarding key parameters for quality, safety and feasibility, within the perspectives of low-volume automotive production. The project went through 1:4 and 1:1 modelling, based on the CAD and CATIA data from the basic vehicle. This digital basis resulted in a milled 1:1 master model and a number of 1:1 moulds for the manufacturing of the new external skin, and for important new body components. The rear bodywork was reinforced with an integrated structure between the rear suspension domes, functioning both as roll bar, and as support for the new, extended roofline.

All structural additions and modifications were thoroughly studied, using advanced simulation methods and FEM-analysis. As a parallel process, these data served for the homologation of the structural changes, including the new foldable rear seats. An important number of hard points from the basic car could be saved and carried-over. The engineering team at Carrozzeria Touring was particularly pleased with the quality assurance support from Bentley engineers.

'Variations on a theme' not rarely implicate a larger design challenge, than starting-off with a white sheet of paper. The basic mission was to create a body incorporating the essence of Touring elegance and harmony, while clearly recognizable as a Bentley. This task was challenging because a fully new volume had to be added to the GTC basis. The proportions were totally new, but the overall design had to be kept consistent. That is why only the section in front of the car's A-pillar, including the windshield has been maintained.

Viewed from the rear, the new tailgate dives between the wide rear wings. The oval rear light chrome bezels are a reference to Bentley fastback cars of the '50. The side view features a low roof, prominent quarter panel shoulders and wide wheel arches, suggesting perfectly mastered energy.

The Touring Superleggera designers were challenged by the target to give the new interior equal elegance, whether the back of the rear seats are folded or not. The solution was to design an "S" shaped trim of the rear quarter panels linking the passenger area to the rear luggage area. The beige and dark green leather contrast also adds to this visual unity.


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